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Federally Recognized Tribes:

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Indian Country's Changing Landscape

A decolonial work through colonial data, let's re-teach American history.

1622 - 1804

There were 28 wars, massacres, and/or conflicts, 35 treaties signed, and over x acres taken from the Natives between 1622 and 1804. You can explore any or all of them in the map or keep scrolling to take a stroll through history. The Spanish began invading the western part of what is now the US much earlier (1500s). This project is based on English colonist (US) data.

The first war with English colonists

1622 - Jamestown Massacre

At first, the natives were glad to trade provisions to the colonists for metal tools, but by 1609 the English governor, John Smith, had begun to send in raiding parties to demand food. This earned the colonists a bad reputation among the Native Americans and precipitated conflict. They isolated the Native Americans, burned down houses, and stole their food supplies.

The Jamestown Massacre of 1622 took place in the English Colony of Virginia, in what now belongs to the United States, on Friday, 22 March 1622. The Powhatan grabbed any tools or weapons available and killed all English settlers they found.

The first written treaty

1778 - Delaware Treaty

The treaty was signed on September 17, 1778 and was the first written treaty between the new United States of America and any American Indians, the Lenape (Delaware Indians) in this case. Although many informal treaties were held with Native Americans during the American Revolution years of 1775–1783, this was the only one that resulted in a formal document. It was signed at what is now Fort Pitt, Pennsylvania, site of present-day downtown Pittsburgh. It was essentially a formal treaty of alliance.

1805 - 1834

There were 23 wars, massacres, and/or conflicts, 119 treaties signed, and over x acres taken from the Natives between 1805 and 1834.

1812 - Fort Dearborn Massacre

Originally, the Battle of Fort Dearborn was titled the Fort Dearborn Massacre most likely due to it being a Native victory. It was an engagement between United States troops and Potawatomi Natives that occurred on August 15, 1812, near Fort Dearborn in what is now Chicago, Illinois. What was then part of the Illinois Territory. The battle, which occurred during the War of 1812, followed the evacuation of the fort as ordered by William Hull, commander of the United States Army of the Northwest. The battle lasted about 15 minutes and resulted in a complete victory for the Native Americans. Fort Dearborn was burned down and those soldiers and settlers who survived were taken captive. Some were later ransomed. After the battle, however, settlers continued to seek to enter the area, the fort was rebuilt in 1816, and settlers and the government were now convinced that all Indians had to be removed from the territory, far away from the settlement.

1816 - 1818 - First Seminole War

The First Seminole War began over attempts by U.S. authorities to recapture runaway black slaves that the Seminole bands were defending. Under General Andrew Jackson, U.S. military forces invaded the area, scattering the villagers, burning their towns, and seizing Spanish-held Pensacola and St. Marks. As a result, in 1819 Spain was induced to cede its Florida territory under the terms of the Transcontinental Treaty.

1828 - Western Cherokee Treaty

The Cherokee nation were divided and some of its members were moved west of the Mississippi River. A portion of tribal land in Georgia was ceded to the U.S. in exchange for land in Arkansas Territory. Disputes with neighboring tribes and encroachment of white settlers led to the western (Arkansas) Cherokees to sign this treaty on May 6, 1828 that had them exchanged their land again to move further west into the Indian territory (present-day Oklahoma). The treaty granted additional benefits to eastern Cherokees who chose to migrate, and it was hoped that enticement would lead them to peaceably relinquish all remaining claims to land in Georgia, including Cobb County. When further negotiations failed and the events of the Trail of Tears occurred a decade later, the eastern Cherokees were escorted to the Indian Territory to join those already settled there as a result of this treaty.

1835 - 1864

There were 66 wars, massacres, and/or conflicts, 72 treaties signed, and over x acres taken from the Natives between 1835 and 1864.

1828 - Western Cherokee Treaty

The Cherokee nation were divided and some of its members were moved west of the Mississippi River. A portion of tribal land in Georgia was ceded to the U.S. in exchange for land in Arkansas Territory. Disputes with neighboring tribes and encroachment of white settlers led to the western (Arkansas) Cherokees to sign this treaty on May 6, 1828 that had them exchanged their land again to move further west into the Indian territory (present-day Oklahoma). The treaty granted additional benefits to eastern Cherokees who chose to migrate, and it was hoped that enticement would lead them to peaceably relinquish all remaining claims to land in Georgia, including Cobb County. When further negotiations failed and the events of the Trail of Tears occurred a decade later, the eastern Cherokees were escorted to the Indian Territory to join those already settled there as a result of this treaty.

1816 - 1818 - Fort Dearborn Massacre

The First Seminole War began over attempts by U.S. authorities to recapture runaway black slaves that the Seminole bands were defending. Under General Andrew Jackson, U.S. military forces invaded the area, scattering the villagers, burning their towns, and seizing Spanish-held Pensacola and St. Marks. As a result, in 1819 Spain was induced to cede its Florida territory under the terms of the Transcontinental Treaty.

1816 - 1818 - Fort Dearborn Massacre

The First Seminole War began over attempts by U.S. authorities to recapture runaway black slaves that the Seminole bands were defending. Under General Andrew Jackson, U.S. military forces invaded the area, scattering the villagers, burning their towns, and seizing Spanish-held Pensacola and St. Marks. As a result, in 1819 Spain was induced to cede its Florida territory under the terms of the Transcontinental Treaty.

1816 - 1818 - Fort Dearborn Massacre

The First Seminole War began over attempts by U.S. authorities to recapture runaway black slaves that the Seminole bands were defending. Under General Andrew Jackson, U.S. military forces invaded the area, scattering the villagers, burning their towns, and seizing Spanish-held Pensacola and St. Marks. As a result, in 1819 Spain was induced to cede its Florida territory under the terms of the Transcontinental Treaty.

1816 - 1818 - Fort Dearborn Massacre

The First Seminole War began over attempts by U.S. authorities to recapture runaway black slaves that the Seminole bands were defending. Under General Andrew Jackson, U.S. military forces invaded the area, scattering the villagers, burning their towns, and seizing Spanish-held Pensacola and St. Marks. As a result, in 1819 Spain was induced to cede its Florida territory under the terms of the Transcontinental Treaty.

1816 - 1818 - Fort Dearborn Massacre

The First Seminole War began over attempts by U.S. authorities to recapture runaway black slaves that the Seminole bands were defending. Under General Andrew Jackson, U.S. military forces invaded the area, scattering the villagers, burning their towns, and seizing Spanish-held Pensacola and St. Marks. As a result, in 1819 Spain was induced to cede its Florida territory under the terms of the Transcontinental Treaty.