Indian Country's Changing Landscape

Original maps produced by Smithisonian Cartographer, Dan G. Cole for the Handbook of North American Indians (vol 7)

Indigenous names and meanings researched by Native Cartographer, Aaron Carapella

War data parsed from Legends of America

Treaty data parsed from Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties archived by Oklahoma State University

Created by Wayne Booth Marci

Treaties:   Wars:

Federally Recognized Tribes:

Settler colonialism, genocide and imperialism are often normalized in U.S. ideologies. Shift, Indian Country’s Changing Landscape offers a reversal of those ideologies into decolonial data-visualizations. Data of and from the Indigenous peoples of the area now known as the U.S. constitute Shift. Vine Deloria Jr., a Native scholar defines true liberation as “chang[ing] the way that Western peoples think, the way they collect data, which data they gather, and how they arrange that information.” Shift visualizes Indigenous data-sets (population, land area, wars, and treaties from 1400-2016) into an immersive and colossal, yet intuitive display to re-teach American history. See the full work at